These
conversions and general data are for use in the home. If precise conversions
are needed please use the tables accessed from the home page. The
measurements given here are based on Imperial / UK units. Standard
USA units are slightly different and are marked.
Apothecary
/ Metric and Other Conversion Equivalents
Abbreviation
of Measures
gal
or gals
=
gallons
g
=
gram
O,
pt or pts
=
pints
kg
=
kilogram (1,000g)
oz
or ozs
=
ounces
mg
=
milligram (^{1}/_{1,000}g)
fl.oz
=
fluid ounces
mcg
or µg
=
microgram (^{1}/_{1,000,000}g)
lb
or lbs
=
pounds
L
or l
=
litre (or liter in US)
st
=
stones
cl
=
centilitre (^{1}/_{100} L)
gtts
=
drops
ml
=
millilitre (^{1}/_{1000} L)
iu
=
international units
µl
=
microlitre (^{1}/_{1,000,000} L)
m or min
=
minims
meq
or mEq
=
Milliequivalent
hr
=
hour
m
=
metre (or meter in US)
min
=
minutes
mm
=
millimetre (^{1}/_{1,000} m)
sec
=
seconds
cc
or cu.cm
=
cubic centimetres (^{1}/_{1,000} L)
ft
=
foot or feet
dr
=
dram or drachm
gr
=
grains
sc
=
scruple
t
or tsp
=
teaspoon
T
or tbsp
=
tablespoon
Of
General Interest
• One
litre of pure water weighs approx. one kilogram so 1cc of water
weighs 1 gram.
• A steel paper clip weighs about 1 gram.
• "A spoonful" means heaped or rounded, with as much
above the bowl of the spoon as in the spoon. Obviously, a measure
of liquid is a level spoonful.
Liquid
Metric Conversions
1
gallon (gal)(US)
=
3785 ml
1
gallon (UK)
=
4546 ml
1
pint (pt)(US)
=
473.18 ml
1
pint (UK)
=
568.26 ml
16
fluid ounces (US)
=
473.18 ml
20
fluid ounces (UK)
=
568.26 ml
8
fluid ounces (US)
=
236.59 ml
10
fluid ounces (UK)
=
284.13 ml
4
fluid ounces (US)
=
118.29 ml
5
fluid ounces (UK)
=
142.07 ml
1
fluid ounce (fl.oz)(US)
=
29.57 ml
1
fluid ounce (UK)
=
28.41 ml




1cc
= 1g
=
1ml (approx)
1
teaspoon
=
5 ml (approx)
10
minims
=
0.616 ml
1
tablespoon
=
15 ml (approx)
15
to 16 drops ( gtts )
=
1 cc = 1ml
1
drop
=
1 minim approx
Note:
Spoon and drop conversions should be regarded as approximations
due to the different surface tensions and specific gravity of
various liquids.
Solid
Metric Conversions
1
pound (avoirdupois)
=
453.592 g
1/2
grain
=
30 mg
1
pound (apothecary)
=
373.242 g
1/4
grain
=
15 mg
1
ounce (avoirdupois)
=
28.35 g
1/8
grain
=
8 mg
1
ounce (apothecary)
=
31.10 g
1/12
grain
=
5 mg
15
grains
=
1 g
1/100
grain
=
600 mcg
10
grains
=
600 mg
1/150
grain
=
400 mcg
7
1/2 grains
=
500 mg
1/200
grain
=
300 mcg
5
grains
=
300 mg
1/250
grain
=
250 mcg
1
1/2 grains
=
100 mg
1/300
grain
=
200 mcg
1
grain
=
64.79891 mg
1
kilogram
=
2.2 pounds
1
pound
=
0.45 kilograms (kg)
1
stone
=
6.35 kg
1000
mcg
=
300 to 7000 iu (below)
1000
mcg
=
1 mg
1
scruple
=
1.2 g
1
drachm
=
28.8 g
Note
on International Units ( i.u. )
An old measurement of vitamin activity determined by biological
methods as opposed to new measures that are determined by direct
chemical analysis.
Many health foods and supplements still use i.u. ( IU ).
For Vitamin A, 1 i.u. = 0.3µg retinol, 3.6µg bcarotene,
or 7.2µg other vitamin A carotenoids
For Vitamin D, 1 i.u. = 0.025µg cholecalciferol
For Vitamin E, 1 i.u. = 0.67µg natural atocopherol (different
conversion factors are used for different forms of vitamin E)
Ratios
and Percent Solutions
1:100
= 1g/100ml
[10mg/ml]
= 1%
1:200
= 500mg/100ml
[5mg/ml]
= 0.5%
1:1,000
= 100mg/100ml
[1mg/ml]
= 0.1%
1:5,000
= 20mg/100ml
[200mcg/ml]
= 0.02%
1:10,000
= 10mg/100ml
[100mcg/ml]
= 0.01%
Calculation
of Milliequivalents (mEq)
mEq
= Weight
(grams) / mEq Weight (grams)
Ion
or Compound
mEq
W.(g)
Ion or Compound
mEq W.(g)
Na+
0.023
HC03
0.061
K+
0.039
NaCl
0.0585
Ca++
0.020
KCl
0.0745
Mg++
0.012
CaCl.2H2O
0.0735
NH4+
0.018
NH4Cl
0.0535
Cl
0.0355
MgSO4.7H20
0.123
Lactate
0.089
NaHCO3
0.084
Acetate
0.059
Ca Gluconate
0.224
Citrate
0.063
Phosphorus
0.031
For milliequivalent
weights not shown, use the formula:
milliequivalent weight (mEq W.) = Atomic
Weight (g) / (Valence) x 1,000
Drug
Administration Times
Standardised
medication administration times should be followed as much
as possible. The following table shows those hours of the
day which are to be used as standardised times of medication
administration. If the prescriber wishes the first dose
to be administered before the earliest available standardised
time then the prescriber should state "expedite" or "first
dose now" with the drug order.
In ICU's the first dose of a newly ordered parenteral antibiotic
regimen should be administered within 2 hours unless specified
otherwise by the prescriber.
Ordered
Time
Hour(s)
to be given
QAM
08
QD
08
QHS
21
QPM
17
BID
08
17
Q12H
08
20
Q8H
08
16 24
TID
08
12 17
TID
AC
07
12 17
TID
W/M
0730
1230 1730
QID
08
12 17 21
Q6H
06
12 18 24
AC
& HS
07
12 17 21
PC
& HS
08
13 18 21
1
HR AC & HS
0630
1130 1630 2100
1
HR PC & HS
0830
1330 1830 2100
5
X's/day
06
1030 15 1930 23
Q4H
04
08 12 16 20 24
Common Terms and Abbreviations
Term
or Phrase
Abbreviation
Meaning
ad
ad
to, up
to
ad libitum
ad. lib.
at pleasure
ana
a.a.
of each
ante cibos
a.c.
before
meals
aqua
aq.
water
bis in
die
b.i.d.
twice
a day
collyrium
collyr.
eye lotion
cum
c.
with
cum aqua
cum aq.
with water
dentur
tales doses
d.t.d.
give such
doses
dispensa
disp.
dispense
et
et
and
gutta,
guttae
gtt.
drop,
drops
hora somni
h.s.
at bedtime
in vitro
in vit.
in glass
misce
m.
mix
non repetatur
non. rep.
do not
repeat
oculus
dexter
o.d.
right
eye
oculus
sinister
o.s.
left eye
omni die
o.d.
daily
omni mane
o.m.
every
morning
omni nocte
o.n.
every
night
per os
p.o.
by mouth
placebo
placebo
to please
post cibos
p.c.
after
meals
pro re
nata
p.r.n.
as the
occasion arises
quantum
sufficiat
q.s.
sufficient
quantity
quater
in die
q.i.d.
four times
a day
recipe
Rx
take
semis
ss _
onehalf
sine
s,s
without
si opus
sit
s.o.s.
if necessary
ter in
die
t.i.d.
three
times a day
trochiscus,
torchisci
troch.
lozenge,
lozenges
unguentum
ungt.
ointment
ut
dictum
ut
dict.
as directed
Estimating Lean Body Weight
Lean
Body Weight Calculation:
Males
50kg + 2.3kg per each inch over 5 feet of height
Females
45kg + 2.3kg per each inch over 5 feet of height
In
patients whose actual weight is > 20% over the above calculated
ideal body weight, add 40% of the difference between the actual
and the calculated ideal weights to the calculated ideal weight
to arrive at a corrected ideal body weight.
1kg = 2.2 lbs. 14 lbs. = 1 stone = 6.35 kg
Height
Estimated
Lean Body Weight
(+) or (  ) 2.3kg per inch over/under 5 feet tall